Under this heading, the links between international terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and failed states were (and still are) the main focus of attention of countries that suffered the scourge of terrorism in particular and the international community in general. It can be said that these phenomena (the "second generation") are characterized by unpredictability and not necessarily because those who run an event of such characteristics are those who have developed the means and instruments for its implementation. However, these second-generation phenomena share an item with the category defined above: a volitional act. That is, the will to carry out an action as a last link of a process. Similarly, the literature of international relations, and one of its derivatives such as security studies, placed their attention on the study of the threats "asymmetrical" (such as terrorism), failed states, weapons trafficking and radioactive material, and organized crime schemes authoritarian.
Third, and increasingly important at present, there is a group of phenomena that go beyond the classifications and conceptual frameworks of social sciences in general do not reach (or dare not) to cover, this is the phenomena of environmental nature. The central feature of these phenomena is the unpredictability and non-reliance on a voluntary act. Whether an earthquake, a tsunami, as a flood caused by a hurricane can not be predicted with much earlier. Logically, many of these phenomena respond to environmental imbalances created by man such as for example, droughts and floods, resulting from deforestation and global warming. The specificity of these phenomena, which could be categorized as "third generation", is as follows: if at first the main victims were almost exclusively in developing countries (due to lack of resources to provide for the occurrence of these phenomena and inadequate infrastructure address them), now the trend shows a generalization effects throughout the planet, both in third world countries as in developed economies.